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ANNO XI/2014 DIGITALE (Pdf) - VOCI


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ANNO XI/2014 DIGITALE (Pdf) - VOCI

 

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Fabio Corbisiero

Omogenitorialità: azioni, politiche e strategie europee per le famiglie arcobaleno

In recent years, gay people are adopting more visible and integrated behaviors and biographic strategies under different aspects of everyday life and within more inclusive territories, such as cities. One of the factors of change are the households and in particular the spread of the so-called "homoparenting families," defined as one of several models of social life that make the concept of family today. Although sociological research about homoparenting is still rather limited, the topic appears to have a significant appeal in the public scientific discourse. This essay aims to  re-read the debate on homoparenting, by comparing European countries and their strategies of access to welfare. In the context of contemporary Europe it is especially the so-called “rainbow cities” (Corbisiero, 2013) that, within the multiple and contradictory processes of organization of Community policies, are developing strategies and tools to govern complex phenomena such as the rights of homofamilies. In the tangle of national and local circuits, and of the legislative and social differences, LGBT issues urge local governments towards the development of new tools of modernization and participation, resulting in the recognition of prerogatives (marriage, adoption, parenting) denied at the national level and supported at the local level.

 

Simonetta Grilli

Scelte di filiazione e nuove relazionalità. Riflessioni a margine di una ricerca sull'omogenitorialità in Italia

This essay is focused on the experience of gay and lesbian parenting in Italy, starting from the role of “Famiglie Arcobaleno” Association in the definition of the homoparenthood and the public legitimation of homoparental families. The homoparenthood will be analyzed through its two constitutive dimensions: the procreation process, on one side and the process of “kinning” of the new born child, on the other.

Gay e lesbian people become parents making use of a variety of solutions to circumvent the structural infertility of homosexual couple like assisted reproductive technologies and various relational strategies, which makes evident the active role of the Association.

The making of parent-child relationship by the homosexual couples is likely to create new forms of "relatedness" under many aspects unexpected such as the relation parents-donor or parents- carrier- children; the meaning of this novel relations is alway negotiated and is still to be fully investigated.

The latter dimension involves the process of kinning through wich a newborn child is trasformed in a kin, in all respects, and is brought into a significant and permanent relationship within a wide group of people, that is expressed in a kin idiom.

 

Margarida Moz

Growing up in Alternative Households within Conventional Families: Same Sex Couples and their Children Adjusting to the Portuguese Heteronormative Family."

After the approval of same-sex marriage in 2010, Portugal is currently the only country in which adoption is denied to the same-sex married couples. During the parliamentary discussion which led to the approval of the law, many were concerned with the implications it would have on the configuration of the Portuguese family, namely the possibility of these couples to raise children. And the well being of children is always the main argument used to prevent same-sex families to have access both to Assisted Reproductive Technology and adoptive children.

Nevertheless, gays and lesbians, alone or in couples, keep on having children both biological and adoptive as neither single parent adoption is denied to them, nor are they kept from having it done elsewhere in Europe or in the US.

Presently there is growing number of “rainbow families” in Portugal, struggling to get visible and legally recognised, which almost happened with the approval, on 17 May 2013, of a law allowing same-sex married couples to adopt their partner's children (i.e. step-child adoption). However, in January 2014, the parliamentary majority party youth leader persuaded the majority to call for a referendum on the subject, which has revoked this law and postponed any decision on the matter.

But who are these families and how do they live in a country that denies them their right to exist as they live, as the family they are?

 

Rosa Parisi

Processi di normalizzazione e regimi di verità. Raccontare la famiglia: note a margine di una ricerca sull’omoparentalità

This article is based on ethnographic data derived from a research on same-sex families conducted in Rome. The first focus is on the role played by the link heterosexuality-procreation within the production of regime of truth and the processes of normalization of the family. The second concern is about the processes of construction of same-sex couples parenthood. The narrative about the birth, the representation of bodies, the private writings and the representation of genetic inheritance, are important aspects of the construction of gay and lesbian parenting, as well as the recognition of parenting agreement between biological and non-biological parent. The practices and family narratives are intertwined with forms of displaying where the public and social dimension of family do occur in the circulation of stories constructed according to the principles of "truth" and transparency. In this way, the public and private dimension of family they support and legitimize each other and are intertwined with the heteronormative regimes and family policies.

 

José Ignacio Picardo Galan

Le famiglie arcobaleno e l’omogenitorialità in Spagna: esperienze e sfide future

The article begins with a socio-historical introduction to understand the situation of LGBT families in Spain. The statistics and studies about children living in these families are subsequently revised. The first part of the article concludes with a reflection on how rainbow families are being included under the umbrella of new models of families and family diversity.

In the second part of the article, some of the challenges rainbow families are facing in Spain are considered. Even if the Spanish population is in general respectful to sexual diversity, homophobia is still present in the country. For example, besides the lack of social equality, there are some legal inequalities between heterosexual and same-sex couples. The search of a biological or genetic link with their offspring is also present among some LGBT parents in the form of what is called “genomania”, and the expectation of being good parents (sometimes even better parents) creates a burden for LGBT parents. Although rainbow families are diverse, schooling and the attention of sexual diversity is a major concern for most these families.

 

Pier Giorgio Solinas

Mille famiglie normali

The article focuses on the issue of normality, its forms and the ambivalence of normality in the domain of family and kinship. The discussion is centered on the hegemony of the patterns of living and shows how such patterns act in the spontaneity of everyday life, and are expressed in the normality, even before than as a norm.

The multiplicity and fluidity of domestic aggregations, relations, and solidarities are investigated through a dynamic approach. This shows how currently the polymorphism of family typologies is much more varied than before, and is built by people who "make" their own universe of relationships. Nowadays, we witness the formation of a dual regime of normality, formal and informal, one whose boundaries are dynamic, fluid and intersecting. In such middle ground it is possible to place the third regime of family making, that of the so-called enlarged, orreconstituted families. Through the analysis of the transformations of the family lexicon - partner, companion, belle-grand-mère- and the analysis of two case studies showing ways in which today families are built and rebuilt, the article discusses the processes of normalization in their occurrence and so it displays the dynamics through which rules and codes of conduct are shaped and become norms as formal synthesis of standard models generated in the social dynamics.

 

Federica Spaccatini, Alessandro Taurino, Maria Giuseppina Pacilli

Orientamento sessuale e genitorialità: quale legame? Una rassegna delle ricerche psicosociali

In Italy there is a heated debate about whether same-sex couples should raise children. In the public opinion, it is widespread the belief that a family, in order to be functional, must be based on the union (usually ratified by marriage) between two opposite sex people. However, it is overlooked that same-sex families are not a possible scenario, but rather a reality in our country, as well as in several other ones. Moreover, it is neglected the striking amount of empirical evidence that clearly shows how the gender of the parents is not related to the children’s development and well-being. The aim of this review is thus to reflect upon same-sex parenting starting from the psychosocial research studies conducted in this field. In particular, we will highlight the main psychological aspects involved in same-sex parenting as well as the main oppositions to the acknowledgement of these family configurations.

 

Enzo Vinicio Alliegro

John Wesley Powell e il Bureau of American Ethnology (1879-1902). Sulle origini dell’antropologia americana

After the death of Franz Boas, which occurred in 1942, in the United States rose a debate about the scientific contribution of the noted scholar of German origin.

This paper, based on the study of literature and consultation of the original sources, intends to shed light on the history of anthropology that preceded Franz Boas.
In particular, attention is directed to the Bureau of American Ethnology, founded in Washington in 1869 and directed until 1902 by John Wesley Powell.

The Bureau of America Ethnology is one of the most important centers of anthropological research founded in the world. In it worked men and women devoted to the study of the native as priests, explorers, army officers, journalists, but also researchers who did anthropology their business full-time, although in the outside of academic institutions.

The Bureau of America Ethnology promoted and funded research based on an innovative methodology (ethnographic research focused on a long stay among the natives and the knowledge of the native language), playing a delicate task for the professionalization of anthropology in the United States, which requires to be highlighted.

 

Mauro Geraci

“Mamma compriamo i proiettili…” Il nazionalismo albanese e la poetica delle armi

The poetry of the kosovar poet Eqrem Basha, from which it draws the title this essay, complaint a political, economic and ideological complex that, for many controversial aspects, is central in the contemporary history of Albania and Kosovo: the complex of weapons, deposits, traffics, of widespread illegal detenctions and the real related cults. Against the background of the great changes taken place in Albania from national indipendence (1912), this essay will try to point out the rhetoric of arms as it occurs and is treated in a literary flourish equally lush, controversial and crucial in incessant albanian transitions. Against the background of sociopolitical contracts which still would wish in an Albania-arsenal, the attempt will be to track down a narrative use of weapons that, in a rhetorical and permanent perspective seems to contemplate the feudal army conception of descent group (fis), the romantic symbolism that assigned to the “pen”, to the “memory” and the “sword” the task of building the rising nation, the idealizations of the “pick”, the “book” and the “rifle” supported by partizan and the writers apostles of socialist regime (1944-1991), the armed rebellions against financial pyramids (1997) as revolts against those some armaments after the explosion of the arsenal of Gërdec (2008) and the most recent struggles against the transfer and destruction plan of syrian chemical weapons in Albania (2013).

 

Luciano Ledda

Aspetti della religiosità locale nel rione Testaccio di Roma: una ricerca antropologica e una campagna di catalogazione di beni culturali

This paper refers to a fieldwork made in Rome, in the Testaccio district, in the years 2010-2012, and to a parallel cataloguing campaign of ethno-anthropological cultural heritage identified and documented during the course of the research. This research concerned aspects of the local popular religion, in particular the two most important annual events: the Good Friday Calvary on Monte Testaccio and the procession of Santa Maria Liberatrice, patron of the district, on the last Sunday in May.

While returning the first data of an urban anthropology monograph, the author shows how the results of his research can be profitably used for a cataloguing campaign and highlights the links and the methodological differences that distinguish the two different systems of knowledge: among which are both the ethnographic long time observation and closer look, and the need for selection and identification peculiar to the cataloguing practice.

 

Gianfranca Ranisio

Disabili per chi? Un approccio antropologico alla disabilità

Anthropology is devoted to the study of disability later than the other social sciences, but in recent years this field of study has gradually enriching, both as a new field of research on the otherness, whether as a result of medical anthropology development.
In fact, the disability exists in relation to the skill , but in other societies it may not necessarily correspond to the Western way of conceiving it, it’s a socially and culturally constructed category , in relation to the way as the societies establish access to the resources and practice policies of inclusion or marginalization. At the same time, however, the concept of disability outlines an existential condition that relates to concrete individuals who live in a physical space and in a social context , with all the ensuing problems , among them also the physical and cultural obstacles, in everyday life, hindering the usability of that space and of that context.
In this article I will focus some aspects related to this issue , which may be specific areas of research such as: the construction of disability in situations of migration, the temporary disability, as a result of an accident , the disability linked to the aging process.

 

Emma Tramontana

Dalle parole alle immagini. Fotografie di Massimo Stefanetti nel manicomio di Perugia (1969)

In 1969 Massimo Stefanetti produced a photo feature at Perugia's Santa Margherita psychiatric hospital, appointed by the provincial administration. The struggle against mental institution began in 1964 with the establishment of a new administration. This generated sudden improvements within the hospital so the administration realized how necessary was using photographic images to entrench a new sensitivity and to broaden asylum's debate.

At first the article will examine the entire collection focusing on the way in which “observing and observed culture get in contact”. The analysis takes several matters: the context of participant observation; the shooted places, people and contexts; composition's, shoot's and development's techniques. In the second part we will examine: the exhibition "Images and words: a dissertation about psychiatric hospital", the rhetorics of Perugia self-reform movement and the figurative choices on exhibition's installation. These choices returned uniquely the isolation and suffering patients dimensions as a indispensable way to lead public opinion to indignation and to its involvement in the fight against internment, but at the same time they reproduced an essentializing imaginary around psychiatric patient that walks away so much from the starting documentation: an unusual documentation, full of modesty, which preserve intimacy and human wealth in a two world's meeting.



 


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